Description: The candidate should be able to configure PAM to support authentication using various available methods. This includes basic SSSD functionality.
Key Knowledge Areas:
PAM configuration files, terms and utilities
passwd and shadow passwords
Use sssd for LDAP authentication
Terms and Utilities:
pam_unix, pam_cracklib, pam_limits, pam_listfile, pam_sss
Having Control over users and Authenticatios and auditing is so important. But there is not just one Authentication source which alway we use. There are different authentication sources like traditionamunix shadow file, LDAP servers, old Nis.
PAM is a kind of abstaraction layer which seats between programs and different kinds of Authentication sources, and handles the process of negotiating with authentication source and take the result back to the program.
This way developers do not need to find out how to design their programs to deal with different authentication sources and they just concentrate on their programs and use pam. From another perspective when a new authentication source implemented, there is no need to change programs, just implement a new pammodule and use it again and again, this way pam bring kind of mobilabilty for programs too.
Any program like passwd, or su which deal with username and password use pam. To do that, the program should work with pam library file pam_lib . PAM by itself is using configuration files /etc/pam.d. PAM is modular and uses differnt modules which are placed in /lib/security .
For example lets check login tool to findout if it uses pam or not(CentOS 7) :
[[email protected] ~]# ldd $(which login)linux-vdso.so.1 => (0x00007fff3cdfe000)libpam.so.0 => /lib64/libpam.so.0 (0x00007f1b30124000)libpam_misc.so.0 => /lib64/libpam_misc.so.0 (0x00007f1b2ff20000)libaudit.so.1 => /lib64/libaudit.so.1 (0x00007f1b2fcf7000)libselinux.so.1 => /lib64/libselinux.so.1 (0x00007f1b2fad0000)libc.so.6 => /lib64/libc.so.6 (0x00007f1b2f703000)libdl.so.2 => /lib64/libdl.so.2 (0x00007f1b2f4ff000)libcap-ng.so.0 => /lib64/libcap-ng.so.0 (0x00007f1b2f2f9000)libpcre.so.1 => /lib64/libpcre.so.1 (0x00007f1b2f097000)/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00007f1b30333000)libpthread.so.0 => /lib64/libpthread.so.0 (0x00007f1b2ee7b000)
libpam_misc bring passwd tool to the pam.
The /etc/pam.d/ directory contains the PAM configuration files for each PAM-aware application. In earlier versions of PAM, the /etc/pam.conf file was used, but this file is now deprecated and is only used if the /etc/pam.d/ directory does not exist:
[[email protected] ~]# cd /etc/[[email protected] etc]# cat pam.confcat: pam.conf: No such file or directory[[email protected] ~]# cd[[email protected] ~]# cd /etc/pam.d/[[email protected] pam.d]# lsatd gdm-pin postlogin-ac suchfn gdm-smartcard ppp sudochsh ksu remote sudo-iconfig-util liveinst runuser su-lcrond login runuser-l system-authcups other setup system-auth-acfingerprint-auth passwd smartcard-auth systemd-userfingerprint-auth-ac password-auth smartcard-auth-ac vlockgdm-autologin password-auth-ac smtp vmtoolsdgdm-fingerprint pluto smtp.postfix xservergdm-launch-environment polkit-1 sshdgdm-password postlogin sssd-shadowutils
Every binary which has some thing to do with pam need to have a configuration file.There are some generic configuration files also. Configuration files define what should exactly happen. PAM Configuration File Format is like this :
<service> <module-interface> <control-flag> <module-name> <module-arguments>
1-Service: It defines what service, this line of configuration is about. Like ssh, or FTP. This way /etc/pam.conf file becomes a one huge file with many lines, that doesn't seem so good which is why in many moder linux distrobutions each service has its own configuration file with its name inside /etc/pam.d directory, as you can see above. Lets take a look at one of them before countinue:
[[email protected] pam.d]# cat login#%PAM-1.0auth [user_unknown=ignore success=ok ignore=ignore default=bad] pam_securetty.soauth substack system-authauth include postloginaccount required pam_nologin.soaccount include system-authpassword include system-auth# pam_selinux.so close should be the first session rulesession required pam_selinux.so closesession required pam_loginuid.sosession optional pam_console.so# pam_selinux.so open should only be followed by sessions to be executed in the user contextsession required pam_selinux.so opensession required pam_namespace.sosession optional pam_keyinit.so force revokesession include system-authsession include postlogin-session optional pam_ck_connector.so
system-auth is a generic configuration file that is included almost in every process that do some thing with authentication.
#%PAM-1.0# This file is auto-generated.# User changes will be destroyed the next time authconfig is run.auth required pam_env.soauth required pam_faildelay.so delay=2000000auth sufficient pam_fprintd.soauth sufficient pam_unix.so nullok try_first_passauth requisite pam_succeed_if.so uid >= 1000 quiet_successauth required pam_deny.soaccount required pam_unix.soaccount sufficient pam_localuser.soaccount sufficient pam_succeed_if.so uid < 1000 quietaccount required pam_permit.sopassword requisite pam_pwquality.so try_first_pass local_users_only retry=3 authtok_type=password sufficient pam_unix.so sha512 shadow nullok try_first_pass use_authtokpassword required pam_deny.sosession optional pam_keyinit.so revokesession required pam_limits.so-session optional pam_systemd.sosession [success=1 default=ignore] pam_succeed_if.so service in crond quiet use_uidsession required pam_unix.so
2- module-interface: Four types of PAM module interface are available. Each of these corresponds to a different aspect of the authorization process:
auth: This module interface authenticates use. For example, it requests and verifies the validity of a password. Modules with this interface can also set credentials, such as group memberships or Kerberos tickets.
account: This module interface verifies that access is allowed. For example, it may check if a user account has expired or if a user is allowed to log in at a particular time of day.
password: This module interface is used for changing user passwords.
session: This module interface configures and manages user sessions. Modules with this interface can also perform additional tasks that are needed to allow access, like mounting a user's home directory and making the user's mailbox available. For better understandning take a look at control.
3- control-flag : All PAM modules generate a success or failure result when called. Control flags tell PAM what do with the result. Modules can be stacked in a particular order, and the control flags determine how important the success or failure of a particular module is to the overall goal of authenticating the user to the service.
There are several simple flags, which use only a keyword to set the configuration:
requisite : The module result must be successful for authentication to continue. However, if a test fails at this point, the user is notified immediately with a message reflecting the first failed
required :The module result must be successful for authentication to continue. If the test fails at this point, the user is not notified until the results of all module tests that reference that interface are complete.
sufficient : The module result is ignored if it fails. However, if the result of a module flagged
no previous modules flagged
requiredhave failed, then no other results are required and the user is authenticated to the service.
optional : The module result is ignored. A module flagged as
optionalonly becomes necessary for successful authentication when no other modules reference the interface.
include : Unlike the other controls, this does not relate to how the module result is handled. This flag pulls in all lines in the configuration file which match the given parameter and appends them as an argument to the module.
4-pam module name : The module name provides PAM with the name of the pluggable module containing the specified module interface. The directory name is omitted because the application is linked to the appropriate version of
libpam, which can locate the correct version of the module.
5- module arguments : PAM uses _arguments _to pass information to a pluggable module during authentication for some modules. For example:
auth required pam_userdb.so db=/path/to/MyDB_file
Invalid arguments are generally ignored and do not otherwise affect the success or failure of the PAM module. Some modules, however, may fail on invalid arguments. Most modules report errors to the
Now that we now the format of PAM configuration file lets take a look at another one:
[[email protected] pam.d]# cat sshd#%PAM-1.0auth required pam_sepermit.soauth substack password-authauth include postlogin# Used with polkit to reauthorize users in remote sessions-auth optional pam_reauthorize.so prepareaccount required pam_nologin.soaccount include password-authpassword include password-auth# pam_selinux.so close should be the first session rulesession required pam_selinux.so closesession required pam_loginuid.so# pam_selinux.so open should only be followed by sessions to be executed in the user contextsession required pam_selinux.so open env_paramssession required pam_namespace.sosession optional pam_keyinit.so force revokesession include password-authsession include postlogin# Used with polkit to reauthorize users in remote sessions-session optional pam_reauthorize.so prepare
As you can see there are some generic configuration files like password-auth wich might be included and used in other configuration files again and again.
There is a place for pam modules itself:
[[email protected] pam.d]# cd /lib64/security/[[email protected] security]# lspam_access.so pam_gdm.so pam_permit.so pam_time.sopam_cap.so pam_gnome_keyring.so pam_postgresok.so pam_timestamp.sopam_chroot.so pam_group.so pam_pwhistory.so pam_tty_audit.sopam_console.so pam_issue.so pam_pwquality.so pam_umask.sopam_cracklib.so pam_keyinit.so pam_rhosts.so pam_unix_acct.sopam_debug.so pam_lastlog.so pam_rootok.so pam_unix_auth.sopam_deny.so pam_limits.so pam_securetty.so pam_unix_passwd.sopam_echo.so pam_listfile.so pam_selinux_permit.so pam_unix_session.sopam_env.so pam_localuser.so pam_selinux.so pam_unix.sopam_exec.so pam_loginuid.so pam_sepermit.so pam_userdb.sopam_faildelay.so pam_mail.so pam_shells.so pam_warn.sopam_faillock.so pam_mkhomedir.so pam_sss.so pam_wheel.sopam_filter pam_motd.so pam_stress.so pam_xauth.sopam_filter.so pam_namespace.so pam_succeed_if.sopam_fprintd.so pam_nologin.so pam_systemd.sopam_ftp.so pam_oddjob_mkhomedir.so pam_tally2.so
If new way of authentication has been invented(Like finger print reader), there is a place which requied module should be placed and integrated with pam configuration files.
For lPIC2 exam we are required to know some of these modules:
pam_unix: This module configures authentication via /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow.
The pam_unix.so module supports the following management groups:
accountThe type “account” does not authenticate the user but checks other things such as the expiration date of the password and might force the user to change his password based on the contents of the files /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow.The following options are supported:debugLog information using syslog.auditAlso logs information, even more than debug does.authThe type “auth” checks the user's password against the password database(s). This component is configured in the file /etc/nsswitch.conf. Please consult the man page (man nsswitch.conf) for further details.The following options are supported:auditLog information using syslog.debugAlso logs information using syslog but less than audit.nodelayThis argument sets the delay-on-failure, which has a default of a second, to nodelay.nullokAllows empty passwords. Normally authentication fails if the password is blank.try_first_passUse the password from the previous stacked auth module and prompt for a new password if the retrieved password is blank or incorrect.use_first_passUse the result from the previous stacked auth module, never prompt the user for a password and fails if the result was a fail.passwordThe type “password” changes the user's password.The following options are supported:auditLog information using syslog.bigcryptUse the DEC “C2” extension to crypt().debugAlso logs information using syslog but less than audit.md5Use md5 encryption instead of crypt().nisUse NIS (Network Information Service) passwords.not_set_passDon't use the passwords from other stacked modules and do not give the new password to other stacked modules.nullokAllows empty passwords. Normally authentication fails if the password is blank.rememberRemember the last n passwords to prevent the user from using one of the last n passwords again.try_first_passUse the password from the previous stacked auth module, and prompt for a new password if the retrieved password is blank or incorrect.use_authtokSet the new password to the one provided by a previous module.use_first_passUse the result from the previous stacked auth module, never prompt the user for a password and fails if the result was a fail.sessionThe type “session” uses syslog to log the user's name and session type at the start and end of a session.The “session” type does not support any options.
Most of services which need authentication include pam_unix.so . As an example we can add options to that inorder to remember last 3 user's password and dose not let user to set them again.
[[email protected] ~]# cd /etc/pam.d/[[email protected] pam.d]# vim system-auth#%PAM-1.0# This file is auto-generated.# User changes will be destroyed the next time authconfig is run.auth required pam_env.soauth required pam_faildelay.so delay=2000000auth sufficient pam_fprintd.soauth sufficient pam_unix.so nullok try_first_passauth requisite pam_succeed_if.so uid >= 1000 quiet_successauth required pam_deny.soaccount required pam_unix.soaccount sufficient pam_localuser.soaccount sufficient pam_succeed_if.so uid < 1000 quietaccount required pam_permit.sopassword requisite pam_pwquality.so try_first_pass local_users_only retry=3 authtok_type=password sufficient pam_unix.so sha512 shadow nullok try_first_pass use_authtok remember=3password required pam_deny.sosession optional pam_keyinit.so revokesession required pam_limits.so-session optional pam_systemd.sosession [success=1 default=ignore] pam_succeed_if.so service in crond quiet use_uidsession required pam_unix.so
And fortunatley there is no need to do any thing else. Test it by creating a user and set different passwords for that 3 times and on forth effort try to set the first password which you have used, it won't let you.
pam_cracklib : This plugin provides strength-checking for passwords. This is done by performing a number of checks to ensure passwords are not too weak. It checks the password against dictonaries, the previous password(s) and rules about the use of numbers, upper and lowercase and other characters. Based on your distro
pam_cracklib name might be name different.
OptionsdebugThis option makes the module write information to syslog(3) indicating the behavior of the module (this option does not write password information to the log file).authtok_type=XXXThe default action is for the module to use the following prompts when requesting passwords: "New UNIX password: " and "Retype UNIX password: ". The example word UNIX can be replaced with this option, by default it is empty.retry=NPrompt user at most N times before returning with error. The default is 1.difok=NThis argument will change the default of 5 for the number of character changes in the new password that differentiate it from the old password.minlen=NThe minimum acceptable size for the new password (plus one if credits are not disabled which is the default). In addition to the number of characters in the new password, credit (of +1 in length) is given for each different kind of character (other, upper, lower and digit). The default for this parameter is 9 which is good for a old style UNIX password all of the same type of character but may be too low to exploit the added security of a md5 system. Note that there is a pair of length limits in Cracklib itself, a "way too short" limit of 4 which is hard coded in and a defined limit (6) that will be checked without reference to minlen. If you want to allow passwords as short as 5 characters you should not use this module.dcredit=N(N >= 0) This is the maximum credit for having digits in the new password. If you have less than or N digits, each digit will count +1 towards meeting the current minlen value. The default for dcredit is 1 which is the recommended value for minlen less than 10.(N < 0) This is the minimum number of digits that must be met for a new password.ucredit=N(N >= 0) This is the maximum credit for having upper case letters in the new password. If you have less than or N upper case letters each letter will count +1 towards meeting the current minlen value. The default for ucredit is 1 which is the recommended value for minlen less than 10.(N < 0) This is the minimum number of upper case letters that must be met for a new password.lcredit=N(N >= 0) This is the maximum credit for having lower case letters in the new password. If you have less than or N lower case letters, each letter will count +1 towards meeting the current minlen value. The default for lcredit is 1 which is the recommended value for minlen less than 10.(N < 0) This is the minimum number of lower case letters that must be met for a new password.ocredit=N(N >= 0) This is the maximum credit for having other characters in the new password. If you have less than or N other characters, each character will count +1 towards meeting the current minlen value. The default for ocredit is 1 which is the recommended value for minlen less than 10.(N < 0) This is the minimum number of other characters that must be met for a new password.minclass=NThe minimum number of required classes of characters for the new password. The default number is zero. The four classes are digits, upper and lower letters and other characters. The difference to the credit check is that a specific class if of characters is not required. Instead N out of four of the classes are required.maxrepeat=NReject passwords which contain more than N same consecutive characters. The default is 0 which means that this check is disabled.maxsequence=NReject passwords which contain monotonic character sequences longer than N. The default is 0 which means that this check is disabled. Examples of such sequence are '12345' or 'fedcb'. Note that most such passwords will not pass the simplicity check unless the sequence is only a minor part of the password.maxclassrepeat=NReject passwords which contain more than N consecutive characters of the same class. The default is 0 which means that this check is disabled.reject_usernameCheck whether the name of the user in straight or reversed form is contained in the new password. If it is found the new password is rejected.gecoscheckCheck whether the words from the GECOS field (usualy full name of the user) longer than 3 characters in straight or reversed form are contained in the new password. If any such word is found the new password is rejected.enforce_for_rootThe module will return error on failed check also if the user changing the password is root. This option is off by default which means that just the message about the failed check is printed but root can change the password anyway.use_authtokThis argument is used to force the module to not prompt the user for a new password but use the one provided by the previously stacked password module.dictpath=/path/to/dictPath to the cracklib dictionaries.
For example we can set minimum charachters wich are required for a password, by the way you can see the name of
`_pamcracklib.so` has been changed here in CentOS7 and that is pam\_pwquality.so :
[[email protected] pam.d]# vim system-auth#%PAM-1.0# This file is auto-generated.# User changes will be destroyed the next time authconfig is run.auth required pam_env.soauth required pam_faildelay.so delay=2000000auth sufficient pam_fprintd.soauth sufficient pam_unix.so nullok try_first_passauth requisite pam_succeed_if.so uid >= 1000 quiet_successauth required pam_deny.soaccount required pam_unix.soaccount sufficient pam_localuser.soaccount sufficient pam_succeed_if.so uid < 1000 quietaccount required pam_permit.sopassword requisite pam_pwquality.so try_first_pass local_users_only retry=3 minlen=10 authtok_type=password sufficient pam_unix.so sha512 shadow nullok try_first_pass use_authtok remember=3password required pam_deny.sosession optional pam_keyinit.so revokesession required pam_limits.so-session optional pam_systemd.sosession [success=1 default=ignore] pam_succeed_if.so service in crond quiet use_uidsession required pam_unix.so
pam_limits : The pam_limits PAM module sets limits on the system resources that can be obtained in a user-session. Users of uid=0 are affected by this limits, too. By default limits are taken from the
/etc/security/limits.confconfig file. Then ndividual files from the
/etc/security/limits.d/directory are read.
[[email protected] pam.d]# grep pam_limits *fingerprint-auth:session required pam_limits.sofingerprint-auth-ac:session required pam_limits.sopassword-auth:session required pam_limits.sopassword-auth-ac:session required pam_limits.sorunuser:session required pam_limits.sosmartcard-auth:session required pam_limits.sosmartcard-auth-ac:session required pam_limits.sosudo:session required pam_limits.sosudo-i:session required pam_limits.sosystem-auth:session required pam_limits.sosystem-auth-ac:session required pam_limits.so[[email protected] pam.d]# cat sudo#%PAM-1.0auth include system-authaccount include system-authpassword include system-authsession optional pam_keyinit.so revokesession required pam_limits.so
As you can see pam__limists.so is used in session module, so instead of manipulating that module which would have effects on other services we put our setting inside /etc/security/limits.conf :
[[email protected] pam.d]# cd /etc/security/[[email protected] security]# lsaccess.conf console.perms limits.d opasswd time.confchroot.conf console.perms.d namespace.conf pam_env.confconsole.apps group.conf namespace.d pwquality.confconsole.handlers limits.conf namespace.init sepermit.conf[[email protected] security]# cat limits.conf# /etc/security/limits.conf##This file sets the resource limits for the users logged in via PAM.#It does not affect resource limits of the system services.##Also note that configuration files in /etc/security/limits.d directory,#which are read in alphabetical order, override the settings in this#file in case the domain is the same or more specific.#That means for example that setting a limit for wildcard domain here#can be overriden with a wildcard setting in a config file in the#subdirectory, but a user specific setting here can be overriden only#with a user specific setting in the subdirectory.##Each line describes a limit for a user in the form:##<domain> <type> <item> <value>##Where:#<domain> can be:# - a user name# - a group name, with @group syntax# - the wildcard *, for default entry# - the wildcard %, can be also used with %group syntax,# for maxlogin limit##<type> can have the two values:# - "soft" for enforcing the soft limits# - "hard" for enforcing hard limits##<item> can be one of the following:# - core - limits the core file size (KB)# - data - max data size (KB)# - fsize - maximum filesize (KB)# - memlock - max locked-in-memory address space (KB)# - nofile - max number of open file descriptors# - rss - max resident set size (KB)# - stack - max stack size (KB)# - cpu - max CPU time (MIN)# - nproc - max number of processes# - as - address space limit (KB)# - maxlogins - max number of logins for this user# - maxsyslogins - max number of logins on the system# - priority - the priority to run user process with# - locks - max number of file locks the user can hold# - sigpending - max number of pending signals# - msgqueue - max memory used by POSIX message queues (bytes)# - nice - max nice priority allowed to raise to values: [-20, 19]# - rtprio - max realtime priority##<domain> <type> <item> <value>##* soft core 0#* hard rss 10000#@student hard nproc 20#@faculty soft nproc 20#@faculty hard nproc 50#ftp hard nproc 0#@student - maxlogins 4# End of file
For example, adding line below at the end of
/etc/security/limits.conf can avoid
pooruser from loging more than once :
@pooruser hard maxlogins 1
For testing, create pooruser and try to ssh to the system more than once, see the results.
pam_listfile : This module allows or denies an action based on the presence of the item in a listfile. A listfile is a textfile containing a list of usernames, one username per line. The type of item can be set via the configuration parameter item and can have the value of user, tty, rhost, ruser, group, or shell. The sense configuration parameter determines whether the entries in the list are allowed. Possible values are allow and deny.
Right now no package or service is currently using pam_list file, for testing lets install a FTP server:
[[email protected] pam.d]# yum install vsftpd[[email protected] pam.d]# grep pam_listfile.so *vsftpd:auth required pam_listfile.so item=user sense=deny file=/etc/vsftpd/ftpusers onerr=succeed[[email protected] pam.d]# cat vsftpd#%PAM-1.0session optional pam_keyinit.so force revokeauth required pam_listfile.so item=user sense=deny file=/etc/vsftpd/ftpusers onerr=succeedauth required pam_shells.soauth include password-authaccount include password-authsession required pam_loginuid.sosession include password-auth
The thing that it does is denying every user which his name/ her name is inside /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers. see:
[[email protected] pam.d]# cat /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers# Users that are not allowed to login via ftprootbindaemonadmlpsyncshutdownhaltnewsuucpoperatorgamesnobody
For testing , start vsftp service, create a pooruser and add it to this list, then try to login to the ftp server with pooruser.
sssd is a centeral service in the authentication process, that determines how exactly the authentication is going to happen. sssd can authenticate us against LDAP, ActiveDirectory, Nis , ... . sssd is especialy developed to do that. Lets just take a look at it inorder to have a better understanding of pam_sss. Here we just chek the service and read sample configuration file:
[email protected] ~]# systemctl status sssd● sssd.service - System Security Services DaemonLoaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/sssd.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)Active: inactive (dead)[[email protected] ~]# cp /usr/share/doc/sssd-common-1.16.0/sssd-example.conf /etc/sssd/sssd.conf[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/sssd/sssd.conf[sssd]config_file_version = 2services = nss, pam# SSSD will not start if you do not configure any domains.# Add new domain configurations as [domain/<NAME>] sections, and# then add the list of domains (in the order you want them to be# queried) to the "domains" attribute below and uncomment it.; domains = LDAP[nss][pam]# Example LDAP domain; [domain/LDAP]; id_provider = ldap; auth_provider = ldap# ldap_schema can be set to "rfc2307", which stores group member names in the# "memberuid" attribute, or to "rfc2307bis", which stores group member DNs in# the "member" attribute. If you do not know this value, ask your LDAP# administrator.; ldap_schema = rfc2307; ldap_uri = ldap://ldap.mydomain.org; ldap_search_base = dc=mydomain,dc=org# Note that enabling enumeration will have a moderate performance impact.# Consequently, the default value for enumeration is FALSE.# Refer to the sssd.conf man page for full details.; enumerate = false# Allow offline logins by locally storing password hashes (default: false).; cache_credentials = true# An example Active Directory domain. Please note that this configuration# works for AD 2003R2 and AD 2008, because they use pretty much RFC2307bis# compliant attribute names. To support UNIX clients with AD 2003 or older,# you must install Microsoft Services For Unix and map LDAP attributes onto# msSFU30* attribute names.; [domain/AD]; id_provider = ldap; auth_provider = krb5; chpass_provider = krb5;; ldap_uri = ldap://your.ad.example.com; ldap_search_base = dc=example,dc=com; ldap_schema = rfc2307bis; ldap_sasl_mech = GSSAPI; ldap_user_object_class = user; ldap_group_object_class = group; ldap_user_home_directory = unixHomeDirectory; ldap_user_principal = userPrincipalName; ldap_account_expire_policy = ad; ldap_force_upper_case_realm = true;; krb5_server = your.ad.example.com; krb5_realm = EXAMPLE.COM
We need to configure and start sssd serviceif have a plan to use it but leave it for now.
pam_sss.so : is the PAM interface to the System Security Services daemon (SSSD). Errors and results are logged through syslog.
nsswitch determines the order that files or services are used to perform either Authentication or Authorative responses to some thing on the system. We typically nsswitch.conf is edited when we are dealing with DNS entries. (We have talked about nsswitch when we talked about BIND DNS in previous course).
[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/nsswitch.conf## /etc/nsswitch.conf## An example Name Service Switch config file. This file should be# sorted with the most-used services at the beginning.## The entry '[NOTFOUND=return]' means that the search for an# entry should stop if the search in the previous entry turned# up nothing. Note that if the search failed due to some other reason# (like no NIS server responding) then the search continues with the# next entry.## Valid entries include:## nisplus Use NIS+ (NIS version 3)# nis Use NIS (NIS version 2), also called YP# dns Use DNS (Domain Name Service)# files Use the local files# db Use the local database (.db) files# compat Use NIS on compat mode# hesiod Use Hesiod for user lookups# [NOTFOUND=return] Stop searching if not found so far## To use db, put the "db" in front of "files" for entries you want to be# looked up first in the databases## Example:#passwd: db files nisplus nis#shadow: db files nisplus nis#group: db files nisplus nispasswd: files sssshadow: files sssgroup: files sss#initgroups: files sss#hosts: db files nisplus nis dnshosts: files dns myhostname# Example - obey only what nisplus tells us...#services: nisplus [NOTFOUND=return] files#networks: nisplus [NOTFOUND=return] files#protocols: nisplus [NOTFOUND=return] files#rpc: nisplus [NOTFOUND=return] files#ethers: nisplus [NOTFOUND=return] files#netmasks: nisplus [NOTFOUND=return] filesbootparams: nisplus [NOTFOUND=return] filesethers: filesnetmasks: filesnetworks: filesprotocols: filesrpc: filesservices: files sssnetgroup: nisplus ssspublickey: nisplusautomount: files nisplus sssaliases: files nisplus
The Authentication order and nsswitch can effect how authentication takes place on our system, including wehther pam any modules are involved ,since they are files. So one way for troubleshooting pam if it not applied, is by controlling nsswitch and the see the order of files.
That is all.