Description: Candidates should be able to identify and correct common network setup issues, to include knowledge of locations for basic configuration files and commands.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Location and content of access restriction files
Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
Utilities to manage routing tables
Utilities to list network states.
Utilities to gain information about the network configuration
Methods of information about the recognized and used hardware devices
System initialization files and their contents (SysV init process)
Awareness of NetworkManager and its impact on network configuration
Terms and Utilities:
System log files such as /var/log/syslog, /var/log/messages and the systemd journal
Network Configuration files are different in Debian and Redhat systems.
Lets take a closer look at both of them, in RedHat :
[email protected]:/etc/network# tree.├── if-down.d│ ├── avahi-autoipd│ ├── resolvconf│ ├── upstart│ └── wpasupplicant -> ../../wpa_supplicant/ifupdown.sh├── if-post-down.d│ ├── avahi-daemon -> ../if-up.d/avahi-daemon│ ├── wireless-tools│ └── wpasupplicant -> ../../wpa_supplicant/ifupdown.sh├── if-pre-up.d│ ├── ethtool│ ├── wireless-tools│ └── wpasupplicant -> ../../wpa_supplicant/ifupdown.sh├── if-up.d│ ├── 000resolvconf│ ├── avahi-autoipd│ ├── avahi-daemon│ ├── ethtool│ ├── openssh-server│ ├── upstart│ └── wpasupplicant -> ../../wpa_supplicant/ifupdown.sh├── interfaces└── interfaces.d5 directories, 18 files
and in CentOS:
[[email protected] network-scripts]# tree.├── ifcfg-ens33├── ifcfg-ens34├── ifcfg-lo├── ifdown -> ../../../usr/sbin/ifdown├── ifdown-bnep├── ifdown-eth├── ifdown-ib├── ifdown-ippp├── ifdown-ipv6├── ifdown-isdn -> ifdown-ippp├── ifdown-post├── ifdown-ppp├── ifdown-routes├── ifdown-sit├── ifdown-Team├── ifdown-TeamPort├── ifdown-tunnel├── ifup -> ../../../usr/sbin/ifup├── ifup-aliases├── ifup-bnep├── ifup-eth├── ifup-ib├── ifup-ippp├── ifup-ipv6├── ifup-isdn -> ifup-ippp├── ifup-plip├── ifup-plusb├── ifup-post├── ifup-ppp├── ifup-routes├── ifup-sit├── ifup-Team├── ifup-TeamPort├── ifup-tunnel├── ifup-wireless├── init.ipv6-global├── network-functions└── network-functions-ipv60 directories, 38 files
In both distributions there are many scripts and directories. Many linux networking features are configured under this directory.
as quick review over LPIC1:
Network Configuration Files:
While Debian based systems usually use a file for any available network interfaces in RedHat based distro each NIC has a specific file for its configuration.
# interfaces(5) file used by ifup(8) and ifdown(8)auto loiface lo inet loopback#auto ens33iface ens33 inet staticaddress 192.168.10.152netmask 255.255.255.0network 192.168.10.0broadcast 192.168.10.255gateway 192.168.10.2dns-nameservers 188.8.131.52gateway 192.168.10.2
In Debain based systems Default Gateway setting are defines in networks configuration file but In RedHat systems, the Default Gateway is configured in /etc/sysconfig/network file.
List DNS servers for internet domain name resolution.
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/resolv.conf# Dynamic resolv.conf(5) file for glibc resolver(3) generated by resolvconf(8)# DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE BY HAND -- YOUR CHANGES WILL BE OVERWRITTEN
# Generated by NetworkManagersearch localdomainnameserver 192.168.10.2nameserver 184.108.40.206
When we change the DNS configuration using /etc/resolv.conf file, we must have noticed that the changes are not permanent. A reboot and your changes might revert to the original settings.
/etc/resolv.conf gets overwritten by several things. the scripts /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-xxx files in redhat or /etc/network/interfaces in Debian , /etc/sysconfig/network (sometimes), DHCP client (depending on its configuration), and NetworkManager. as an example to make a persistent change in resolv.conf using DHCP client config file, uncomment :
[email protected]:/# cat /etc/dhcp/dhclient.conf | grep prepend\ domain-name-servers#prepend domain-name-servers 127.0.0.1;
another way is to edit head or base or tail file under resolv.d directory :
[email protected]:/etc# tree resolvconf/resolvconf/├── interface-order├── resolv.conf.d│ ├── base│ └── head├── update.d│ └── libc└── update-libc.d└── avahi-daemon3 directories, 5 files
base: Used when no other data can be found
head: Used for the header of resolv.conf, can be used to ensure a DNS server is always the first one in the list
tail: Any entry in tail is appended at the end of the resulting resolv.conf.
It has been getting harder to trace the changes ever since systemd has been added to the system since much of the startup is being hidden. systemd-resolved is a caching only name server that modified resolv.conf to include it in the search.It also generates /run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf for compatibility which may be symlinked from /etc/resolv.conf (Ubuntu):
[email protected]:/etc# ls -l | grep resolv.conflrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 29 Nov 26 02:38 resolv.conf -> ../run/resolvconf/resolv.conf
traceroute print the route packets take to network host.
[email protected]:~# traceroute google.comtraceroute to google.com (220.127.116.11), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets1 18.104.22.168 (22.214.171.124) 89.174 ms 89.094 ms 89.054 ms2 126.96.36.199 (188.8.131.52) 109.037 ms 108.994 ms 108.963 ms3 184.108.40.206 (220.127.116.11) 108.937 ms 121.322 ms 121.300 ms4 * 18.104.22.168 (22.214.171.124) 113.754 ms 113.692 ms5 126.96.36.199 (188.8.131.52) 123.585 ms 123.558 ms 123.527 ms6 184.108.40.206 (220.127.116.11) 123.499 ms 123.475 ms 143.523 ms7 18.104.22.168 (22.214.171.124) 143.503 ms 95.106 ms 95.026 ms8 bom03s02-in-f4.1e100.net (126.96.36.199) 94.980 ms 104.989 ms 104.954 ms
But How traceroute command bring this information to us ? Like ping, trace route uses ICMP packets. But Traceroute utility uses the TTL field in the IP header to achieve its operation. Hmm, What is TTL then ?
Simply it is lifetime of the packet on network. Each time the packet is held on a router, it decreases the TTL value by 1. When a router finds the TTL value of 1 in a received packet then that packet is not forwarded but instead discarded.
After discarding the packet, router sends an ICMP error message of “Time exceeded” back to the source from where packet generated. The ICMP packet that is sent back contains the IP address of the router. :)
So now it can be easily understood that traceroute operates by sending packets with TTL value starting from 1 and then incrementing by one each time. Each time a router receives the packet, it checks the TTL field, if TTL field is 1 then it discards the packet and sends the ICMP error packet containing its IP address and this is what traceroute requires. So traceroute incrementally fetches the IP of all the routers between the source and the destination.
traceroute useful commands
traceroute -i ens33 google.com
Specify the Interface to use
traceroute google.com -n
Disable Host Name and IP address mapping
traceroute google.com -w 0.2
Configure Response Wait Time
traceroute google.com -q 5
Configure Number of queries per Hop (default: 3)
traceroute google.com -f 8
Configure The TTL Value to start with
traceroute -6 ipv6.google.com
trace the route using IPv6
traceroute6 is equivalent to traceroute -6.
We have talked about ping and traceroute. How about combining the functionality of both command into one mtr command? MTR is a powerful network diagnostic tool that enables administrators to diagnose and provide helpful reports of network status. (mtr might not be installed, install it and use it):
[email protected]:~# mtr google.com
HOST: server1 Loss% Snt Last Avg Best Wrst StDev1. inner-cake 0.0% 10 2.8 2.1 1.9 2.8 0.32. outer-cake 0.0% 10 3.2 2.6 2.4 3.2 0.33. 188.8.131.52 0.0% 10 9.8 12.2 8.7 18.2 3.04. po-20-ar01.absecon.nj.panjde 0.0% 10 10.2 10.4 8.9 14.2 1.65. be-30-crs01.audubon.nj.panjd 0.0% 10 10.8 12.2 10.1 16.6 1.76. pos-0-12-0-0-ar01.plainfield 0.0% 10 13.4 14.6 12.6 21.6 2.67. pos-0-6-0-0-cr01.newyork.ny. 0.0% 10 15.2 15.3 13.9 18.2 1.38. pos-0-4-0-0-pe01.111eighthav 0.0% 10 16.5 16.2 14.5 19.3 1.39. as15169-3.111eighthave.ny.ib 0.0% 10 16.0 17.1 14.2 27.7 3.910. 184.108.40.206 0.0% 10 19.1 22.0 13.9 43.3 11.111. 220.127.116.11 0.0% 10 15.1 16.2 14.8 20.2 1.612. lga15s02-in-f104.1e100.net 0.0% 10 15.6 16.9 15.2 20.6 1.7
How does it work ? Like other Networking diagnostic tools including ping, traceroute, mtr use ICMP packets to test contention and traffic between two points on the Internet. and like traceroute it gathers required information of network by increasing TTL of packets.
useful mtr switches
-h , --help
Print the summary of command line argument options
-v , --version
Print the installed version of mtr
-r , --report
This option puts mtr into report mode. When in this mode, mtr will run for the number of cycles specified by the -c option, and then print statistics and exit. -c COUNT
-n , --no-dns
force mtr to display numeric IP numbers and not try to resolve the hostnames
Read servers list From a file
Use IPv4 Only
Use IPv6 Only
Device or system hostnames are used to easily recognize a machine within a network in a human readable format. It is not much of a surprise, but on Linux system, the hostname can be easily changed by using simple command as hostname .
[email protected]:~# hostnameserver1[email protected]:~# hostname myhostname[email protected]:~# hostnamemyhostname
This will change the hostname of your system immediately, but there is one problem – the original hostname will be restored upon next reboot.
The way tht we make system hostname permanent is different in RedHat and Ubuntu, also it has been changed in Latest modern linux with systemd. Lets go:
For Older Linux distributions, which uses SysV , We can change hostname by simply editing the hostname file located in /etc/hostname and then we have to add another record for hostname in /etc/hosts:
On RHEL/CentOS based systems that use init, the hostname is changed by modifying /etc/sysconfig/network
[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/networkNETWORKING=yesNETWORKING_IPV6=yesHOSTNAME=myhostname
Newer version of different Linux distributions such as latest Ubuntu, Debian, CentOS, Fedora, RedHat, etc. comes with systemd, a system and service manager that provides a hostnamectl command to manage hostnames in Linux.
[email protected]:~# hostnamectl set-hostname myhostname
As our machine gets started, it will need to know the mapping of some hostnames to IP addresses before DNS can be referenced. This mapping is kept in the /etc/hosts file. In the absence of a name server, any network program on our system consults this file to determine the IP address that corresponds to a host name.
cat /etc/hosts127.0.0.1 localhost127.0.1.1 ubuntu# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts::1 ip6-localhost ip6-loopbackfe00::0 ip6-localnetff00::0 ip6-mcastprefixff02::1 ip6-allnodesff02::2 ip6-allrouters
Can you remmember TCP wrappers ? as a quick review TCP wrappers are used to restrict access to network services running on a Linux server. However, we must clarify that the use of TCP wrappers does not eliminate the need for a properly configured firewall. We can think of this tool as a host-based access control list, and not as the ultimate security measure for our system.But how they are related to /etc/host.allow and host.deny?
When a network request reaches server, TCP wrappers uses hosts.allow and hosts.deny (in that order) to determine if the client should be allowed to use a given service.
By default, these files are empty, all commented out, or do not exist. Thus, everything is allowed through the TCP wrappers layer and our system is left to rely on the firewall for full protection.To resolve this edit host.allow / host.deny file.First make sure that they do exist:
[email protected]:~# ls -l /etc/hosts.allow /etc/hosts.deny-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 411 Aug 1 2017 /etc/hosts.allow-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 711 Aug 1 2017 /etc/hosts.deny
The syntax of both files is:
<services> : <clients> [: <option1> : <option2> : ...]
services is a comma-separated list of services the current rule should be applied to.
clients list of comma-separated hostnames or IP addresses affected by the rule.
The following wildcards are accepted:
ALL matches everything. Applies both to clients and services.
LOCAL matches hosts without a period in their FQDN, such as localhost.
KNOWN indicate a situation where the hostname, host address, or user are known.
UNKNOWN is the opposite of KNOWN.
PARANOID causes a connection to be dropped if reverse DNS lookups return a different address in each case.
Finally, an optional list of colon-separated actions indicate what should happen when a given rule is triggered.
Unfortunately, not all network services support the use of TCP wrappers. libwrap should be included among shared libraries which used by a program to show TCP wrappers is supported.
ldd /path/to/binary | grep libwrap
[email protected]:~# ldd $(which sshd) | grep libwraplibwrap.so.0 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libwrap.so.0 (0x00007fc2bbfca000)
okey, as an example To allow SSH and FTP access only to 192.168.10.151 and localhost and deny all others, add these two lines in /etc/hosts.deny:
sshd,vsftpd : ALLALL : ALL
and the following line in /etc/hosts.allow:
sshd,vsftpd : 192.168.10.151,LOCAL