106.3. Accessibility

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Description: Demonstrate knowledge and awareness of accessibility technologies.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic knowledge of keyboard accessibility settings (AccessX)

  • Basic knowledge of visual settings and themes

  • Basic knowledge of assistive technology (ATs)

Terms and Utilities:

  • Sticky/Repeat Keys

  • Slow/Bounce/Toggle Keys

  • Mouse Keys

  • High Contrast/Large Print Desktop Themes

  • Screen Reader

  • Braille Display

  • Screen Magnifier

  • On-Screen Keyboard

  • Gestures (used at login, for example GDM)

  • Orca

  • GOK

  • emacspeak

There are some people with disabilities . A disability is any condition that makes it more difficult for a person to do certain activities or interact with the world around them. People with disabilities might like to work with Linux too . The good news is that Linux distributions provide great advantages over proprietary alternatives for people with disabilities!

What is Accessibility?

Accessibility , means making software usable by disabled people. That includes blind people of course, but also people who have low vision, are deaf, colorblind, have only one hand, can move only a few fingers, or even only the eyes.

These options are available in display managers (login screen) and in major desktops (like gnome, kde, xfce, ...). Its logo is a human stretching its hands a legs.

In Gnome the config is located at Settings ~ Universal Access.

Linux provides accessibility in 3 sections:

  1. AccessX : AccessX or the Keyboard Accessibility preference tool allows you to set some options for people who have difficulty with keyboard .

  2. Visual Settings : Visual Settings help people with vision problems:

  3. Assistive Technologies : things like text-to-speech (tts)

AccessX

  • Sticky keys: Helps users who have trouble pressing multiple keys at once, and users who have use of only one hand

  • Slow keys allows the user to specify the duration for which one must press-and-hold a key before the system accepts the keypress.

  • BounceKeys: Requires a delay between keystrokes before accepting the next keypress .

  • MouseKeys: Enables a group of keys to emulate a mouse. Pressing keys in this group will move a pointer around the screen and perform mouse button actions.

  • RepeatKeys: Enables the user who has trouble releasing keys quickly once they press to slow down how fast keys start repeating once they're pressed.

  • Hover Click: Enable click or drag simply by hovering mouse pointer over a control or object on the screen.

Visual Settings

  • High-contrast : Helps users who have trouble seeing text unless contrast is corrected, such as white text on a black background, or vice versa.

  • zoom (Magnifier) : Helps users with visual impairments who need larger text and images.

  • Large Text: Make reading text easier by using larger fonts in menus.

  • On screen keyboard: Helps users who cannot type at all, but who can use a mouse.

GOK is the Gnome On-Screen Keyboard. As the title implies, it is a keyboard that appears on the display as an alternative for those who are not able to use a regular keyboard.

  • Visual alerts: Replace system sounds with visual cues(like flashing th e screen)

  • Screen reader: A text-to-speech system to read what's on the screen

Text to speech

There are some Text to speech software in Linux which read dialog boxes for us . Software like orca and emac speak .

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https://lwn.net/Articles/302159/

https://opensource.com/life/15/5/accessibility-linuxhttps://accessibility.linuxfoundation.org/a11yweb/presentations/2005f2f/johnson-20050124-accessx.html

https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Accessibility/Reviews/GOK

https://jadi.gitbooks.io/lpic1/content/1063_accessibility.html

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