When a new file is created, the creation process specifies the permissions that the new file should have. Often, the mode requested is 0666, which makes the file readable and writable by anyone (but not executable). Directories usually default to 0777. However, this permissive creation is affected by a umask value, which specifies what permissions a user does not want to grant automatically to newly created files or directories. The system uses the umask value to reduce the originally requested permissions.